Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Names Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG
Accession numbers NC_013198, AP011548
Background Lactobacilli are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals where they are widely considered to exert a number of beneficial roles including immunomodulation, interference with enteric pathogens, and maintenance of a healthy intestinal microflora. Historically, probiotic roles have been ascribed primarily to Lactobacillus acidophilus. The genus Lactobacillus presently comprises more than 50 recognized species of non pathogenic bacteria which in addition to their probiotic effects are useful to human as indispensable agents for the fermentation of foods and feed.Strain ATCC 53103 / GG was originally isolated from a human intestine. Comparison of its genome with that of L.rhamnosus Lc 705 (LACRL), an industrial strain used routinely as an adjunct starter culture in dairy products, shows high genomic synteny with 4 or 5 genomic islands encoding unique proteins. Among them are a set of genes for 3 pilin proteins (SpaCBA) and a sortase, an element obligatory for the assembly of pilus structures, which are considered important for colonization and host interaction in some Gram-positive bacteria. Strain ATCC 53103 / GG persists longer in the human intestine than Lc 705, which may be due to its SpaCBA-pili. An isometric bacteriophage was observed in the electron micrographs of GG cells, possibly indicating that the phage components encoded by one of the genome islands are functional. Two different isolates have been sequenced. FM179322 is 5 kb shorter than the other, and an 8.9-kb region (genome coordinates 618415 to 627294 of FM179322) is inverted between the two (adapted from PMID 19805152 and 19820099 ). (HAMAP: LACRG)
Strain GG
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (02-JUL-2008) Paulin L.G., Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, PObox 56 (Viikinkaari 4), 00014 Helsinki,
(17-MAR-2010) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method 454-GS20
Isolation site Human feces
Isolation country NA
Number of replicons 2
Gram staining properties Positive
Shape Bacilli
Mobility No
Flagellar presence No
Number of membranes 1
Oxygen requirements Facultative
Optimal temperature NA
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat Multiple
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name Homo sapiens
Cell arrangement NA
Sporulation NA
Metabolism NA
Energy source NA
Diseases NA
Pathogenicity No