Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680

Names Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680
Accession numbers NC_003155, NC_004719
Background Streptomycetes are the most widely studied and well known genus of the actinomycete family. Streptomycetes usually inhabit soil and are important decomposers. They also produce more than half of the world's antibiotics, and are consequently invaluable in the medical field.Streptomycetes resemble fungi in their structure. Their branching, filamentous arrangement of cells form a network called a mycelium. They are able to metabolize many different compounds including sugars, alcohols, amino acids, and aromatic compounds by producing extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Their metabolic diversity is due to their extremely large genome which has hundreds of transcription factors that control gene expression, allowing them to respond to specific needs.In addition to echoing fungi in their cellular structure, streptomycetes also resemble fungi in their elaborate life cycle. During the vegetative growth stage of streptomycete development, DNA replication takes place without cellular division, creating the previously mentioned filamentous structure. Streptomycetes reproduce and disperse through the formation of spores, called conidia, which follows the period of vegetative growth. The spores are produced in aerial filaments called sporophores, which rise above the colony. Because the complex life cycle of streptomycetes resembles that of multicellular eukaryotes, it enables researchers to study the development of these more complex systems using a simpler system.Streptomycetes are found worldwide in soil, and are largely responsible, through the secretion of chemicals called geosmens, for the earthy smell of soil. streptomycetes consequently play an important role in the degradation of organic matter, most commonly noted in compost piles.Several species of Streptomyces are involved in a symbiotic relationship with species of ants in the genus Attini. Attine ants cultivate fungus in, what are termed fungal gardens. They perform all the motions of human farmers, weeding, and nurturing their gardens. The small bacterium in the streptomyces genus inhabits the cuticles of the ants, and aids in weeding their fungal gardens. Streptomycetes produce toxins that keep the main weed in ant fungal gardens, another fungi, Escovopsis, at bay.Because streptomycetes inhabit soil, they are mainly phytopathogens, known for attacking root vegetables, such as potatoes, beets, radishes, rutabaga, turnips, carrots, and parsnip. Most commonly found on potatoes, Streptomyces scabies creates a condition known as "common scab," which manifests itself as sores on the external surface of the potato. The scabs do not harm the meat on the the inside of the potato but create an extremely unpleasant appearance that devalues the potato.Streptomyces coelicolor has a unique bacteriophage resistance system, designed to ward of the temperate bacteriophage phiC31. The phage growth limitation system of Streptomyces coelicolor causes phages replicated in a streptomycete cell to become modified, which activates a mechanism to inhibit phage growth on reinfection of the same host. Essentially, they manufacture immunity towards bacteriophages.Streptomycetes are most widely known for their ability to synthesize antibiotics. Over 50 different antibiotics have ben isolated from streptomycetes, providing most of the world's antibiotics. With the newly sequenced genome of Steptomyces coelicolor comes the possibility of deriving still more antibiotics that have so far remained undiscovered.The genes of the unusually large genome of Streptomyces coelicolor are grouped together in clusters, each cluster making a different antibiotic chemical. The genome contains around 20 clusters, of which only four were previously known. Projects to use the genome data in the synthesis of new antibiotics are already underway. Many of these projects are focusing on the possibility to using genetic engineering to to create entirely new chemicals by splicing together machinery from the numerous templates provided by Streptomyces coelicolor.(From (MicrobeWiki: Streptomyces)
Strain MA-4680
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (08-APR-2002) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
(29-MAR-2002) Kitasato University, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555,
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method Sanger
Isolation site Soil sample collected in Shizuoka Prefecture Japan
Isolation country Japan
Number of replicons 2
Gram staining properties Positive
Shape Tailed
Mobility Yes
Flagellar presence No
Number of membranes 1
Oxygen requirements Aerobic
Optimal temperature 25.0
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat Multiple
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name NA
Cell arrangement NA
Sporulation Sporulating
Metabolism NA
Energy source NA
Diseases None
Pathogenicity No
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
Pentose phosphate pathway
Fructose and mannose metabolism
Galactose metabolism
Fatty acid metabolism
Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
Purine metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
Geraniol degradation
Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
Lysine biosynthesis
Arginine and proline metabolism
Histidine metabolism
Bisphenol degradation
Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
beta-Alanine metabolism
Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
Selenocompound metabolism
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
D-Alanine metabolism
Glutathione metabolism
Starch and sucrose metabolism
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
Streptomycin biosynthesis
Biosynthesis of 12-, 14- and 16-membered macrolides
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
Pyruvate metabolism
Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
Propanoate metabolism
Styrene degradation
Butanoate metabolism
C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
One carbon pool by folate
Thiamine metabolism
Riboflavin metabolism
Vitamin B6 metabolism
Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
Biotin metabolism
Lipoic acid metabolism
Folate biosynthesis
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
Biosynthesis of ansamycins
Biosynthesis of type II polyketide backbone