Brachyspira hyodysenteriae WA1

Names Brachyspira hyodysenteriae WA1
Accession numbers NC_012225, NC_012226
Background Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an anaerobic spirochete that is the causative agent of swine dysentery, severe inflammation of the large intestine with a bloody mucous diarrhea of pigs. The bacterium can survive for several weeks in cold moist conditions but not under warm dry conditions. It spreads slowly, building up in numbers as the dose rate of the causal agent builds up in the environment. Pigs that recover develop a low immunity and rarely suffer from the disease again. It can be spread by other organisms (flies, mice, birds and dogs) or external mechanical factors; its main habitat is the porcine cecum and colon. It is chemotactically attracted to mucin which it penetrates with a corkscrew-like motility. Many of the predicted CDS show a higher match to Escherichia (36%) and Clostridium (15%) than to other spirochete CDS (only 5%), and it is thought that their genes were probably acquired via horizontal gene transfer. About half of these Escherichia and Clostridium-like CDS are involved in metabolism, suggesting they enhance survival in the large intestine. It also has 123 predicted transport CDS, pathways for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, a non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide metabolism, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and a respiratory electron transport chain. ATP is probably generated by sugar metabolism. It has 314 putative virulence factors, including proteases, hemolysins, ankyrin proteins, potential type III secretion system and CDS involved in chemotaxis (adapted from and PubMed 19262690). (HAMAP: BRAHW)
Strain WA1
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (06-JAN-2009) Centre for Comparative Genomics, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia 6150, Australia
(23-MAR-2009) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method Sanger, 454-GS20
Isolation site Pig with swine dysentery in Western Australia
Isolation country Australia
Number of replicons 2
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Spirilla
Mobility No
Flagellar presence Yes
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Facultative
Optimal temperature NA
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat HostAssociated
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name Pig
Cell arrangement Singles
Sporulation Nonsporulating
Metabolism NA
Energy source Chemoorganotroph
Diseases Swine dysentery
Pathogenicity No