Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58

Names Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58
Accession numbers NC_003062, NC_003063, NC_003064, NC_003065
Background At the turn of the century, Agrobacterium tumefaciens was identified as the causal agent in crown gall disease in dicotyledonous plants. Since then, thorough research has been done on this bacterium's mechanism of tumor induction; in addition, Argorbacterium is used in numerous research projects as a means with which to introduce new genes into the genomes of a number of plants.Agrobacterium tumefaciens has an unusual chromosomal organization - it has a 2 Mb linear and a 2.8 Mb circular chromosome as well as a 206.479 kbp Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid. The genes that cause gall formation in plants are located for the most part on the the Ti plasmid. Interestingly, if Agrobacterium is grown near its maximum temperature of about 30oC, then the plasmid is lost as well as the pathogenicity of the bacterium.Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium. Agrobacterium strains use different carbohadrates and are classified into three main biovars. The differences among biovars are mainly determined by the genes on the circular chromosome. A. tumefaciens is known for calling the formation of galls on plants that it infects. When a wound opens on the plant tissue, the motile cells of A. tumefaciens move into the tissue by chemotaxis as a response to the release of sugars and other components normally in the roots. While A. tumefaciens cells without Ti plasmids recognize and move towards plant wounds, the strains containing the Ti plasmids respond even more strongly because they recognize phenolic compounds such as acetosyringone that come out of the wound (Deacon).Agrobacterium tumefaciens can generally be found on and around root surfaces known as the rhizosphere. There it seems to use nutrients that leak from the root tissue. It will infect the tissue at wound sites formed from transplanting seedlings, burrowing animals or bugs, etc (Deacon). Agrobacterium radiobacter grows on various explosives such as nitroglycerine - they use this as their sole source of nitrogen. It removes two nitro groups from nitroglycerine by an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase, but can not use the carbon in nitroglycerine for growth because it cannot remove the third nitro group to release glycerol (White).Agrobacterium tumefaciens is most widely known for causing crown gall disease that affects many dicotyledonous (broad-leaved) plants; another strain called biovar 3 causes crown gall disease in grapvines. The disease causes the formation of tumor-like swellings called galls that can generally be found on the crown of the plant just above the soil. Crown gall disease does not usually seriously harm older plants; however, it may reduce the value of a plant in a nursery.Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease by first transfering part of its DNA into an opening in the plant. The DNA then integrates itself into the plant's genome and causes the formation of the gall. (From (MicrobeWiki: Agrobacterium)
Strain C58
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (14-AUG-2001) Cereon Genomics, 45 Sidney Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
(15-OCT-2001) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
(30-OCT-2007) Virginia Bioinformatics institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Washington Street Box
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method NA
Isolation site Cherry tree tumor
Isolation country NA
Number of replicons 4
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Bacilli
Mobility Yes
Flagellar presence Yes
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Aerobic
Optimal temperature 25.0
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat Multiple
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name NA
Cell arrangement NA
Sporulation NA
Metabolism Nitrogen fixation
Energy source NA
Diseases Tumors
Pathogenicity No
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
Pentose phosphate pathway
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
Fructose and mannose metabolism
Galactose metabolism
Fatty acid metabolism
Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
Purine metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
Geraniol degradation
Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
Lysine biosynthesis
Arginine and proline metabolism
Histidine metabolism
Bisphenol degradation
Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
Selenocompound metabolism
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
D-Alanine metabolism
Starch and sucrose metabolism
Streptomycin biosynthesis
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
Pyruvate metabolism
Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
Naphthalene degradation
Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
Butanoate metabolism
C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
One carbon pool by folate
Thiamine metabolism
Riboflavin metabolism
Vitamin B6 metabolism
Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
Biotin metabolism
Lipoic acid metabolism
Folate biosynthesis
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Nitrogen metabolism
Sulfur metabolism
Caprolactam degradation
Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
Biosynthesis of ansamycins