Azoarcus sp. BH72

Names Azoarcus sp. BH72
Accession numbers NC_008702
Background Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is a mutualistic N2-fixing endophyte of salt-tolerant Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth), a grass gowing in the Punjab of Pakistan. Endophytes are bacteria that live within the tissues of plants without causing them any harm; Azoarcus resides within the roots of its host. Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is also capable of endophytic N2 fixation in rice and sugarcane. The bacteria has not been detected in root-free soil, although it is able to be cultured. It does not however excrete significant amounts of nitrogenous compounds in culture. The genome sequence has shown that Azoarcus has very few mobile genetic elements, or phage-related genes, suggesting its adaptation to a fairly stable, low-stress environment. The sec-dependent, SRP-mediated and Tat systems for protein secretion are all present, in addition to a type I, the type IIb secretion systems and an autotransporter. However it is lacking both type III and type IV secretion systems, suggesting it can not export proteins to its host, and indeed it does not seem to encode toxin-producing genes. Type IV pili are present and are known to be important to colonization of grasses. It is unable to metabolize carbohydrates and is lacking cell-wall degrading enzymes, which probably contributes to its ability to colonize its host at very high density without being pathogenic. (EBI Integr8)
Strain BH72
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (19-SEP-2006) Reinhold-Hurek B., Krause A., University of Bremen, General Microbiology, PO. Box 33 04 40, D-28334 Bremen,
(22-DEC-2006) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method Sanger
Isolation site Roots of Kaller grass, Punjab region, Pakistan
Isolation country Pakistan
Number of replicons 1
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Bacilli
Mobility Yes
Flagellar presence Yes
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Microaerophilic
Optimal temperature NA
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat HostAssociated
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name NA
Cell arrangement NA
Sporulation NA
Metabolism Nitrogen fixation
Energy source Diazotroph
Diseases NA
Pathogenicity No
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
Pentose phosphate pathway
Fructose and mannose metabolism
Fatty acid metabolism
Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
Purine metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
Geraniol degradation
Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
Lysine biosynthesis
Arginine and proline metabolism
Histidine metabolism
Phenylalanine metabolism
Benzoate degradation
Bisphenol degradation
Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
Selenocompound metabolism
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
D-Alanine metabolism
Glutathione metabolism
Streptomycin biosynthesis
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
Pyruvate metabolism
Xylene degradation
Toluene degradation
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation
Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
Naphthalene degradation
Aminobenzoate degradation
Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
Nitrotoluene degradation
Propanoate metabolism
Ethylbenzene degradation
Styrene degradation
Butanoate metabolism
C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
One carbon pool by folate
Thiamine metabolism
Riboflavin metabolism
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
Biotin metabolism
Lipoic acid metabolism
Folate biosynthesis
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Limonene and pinene degradation
Nitrogen metabolism
Sulfur metabolism
Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids