Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila ATCC 7966

Names Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila ATCC 7966
Accession numbers NC_008570
Background Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria found in diverse aquatic environments worldwide, such as bottled water, chlorinated water, well water and heavily polluted waters. Aeromonas hydrophila survives easily in waters polluted by feces and seems resistant to various disinfectants, insecticides and chemicals. High numbers of Aeromonas spp. were recorded in floodwater samples in New Orleans following hurricane Katrina and they were the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections among the survivors of the 2004 tsunami in Thailand. Aeromonas spp. cause infections in invertebrate and vertebrate such as frogs, birds and domestic animals. Infection in various fish species can result in hemorrhagic disease and furunculosis. Although Aeromonas was originally considered an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans, increasing cases of intestinal and extraintestinal disease suggest that it is an emerging human pathogen irrespective of the host's immune system. This organism has been included in the Contaminant Candidate List by the Environmental Protection Agency. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila (strain ATCC 7966 / NCIB 9240) was originally isolated from "a tin of milk with a fishy odor". Its genome is comprised of a single circular 4.74 Mb-chromosome. No transposase, resolvase or insertion sequence element was found in the genome. A type II secretion system and genes homologs to the vas genes proposed to encode a prototypic type VI secretion system were identified but a type III secretion system is surprisingly absent. The genes for the polar flagellum are found in four main clusters. It seems well-equipped to counter an attack of antibacterial factors as beta-lactamases, chloramphenicol acetyltransferases and other proteins that could confer resistance to bicyclomicin, fosmidomycin and aminoglycosides are present. A peptide intake transport system may play a role in resistance to antimicrobial peptides and drug efflux transporters may confer further resistance to other classes of antibiotics and toxins. A four-gene arsenical resistance operon that may pump arsenite or antimonite out of the cell has been found. Numerous amino acid and peptide transporters and relatively few sugar uptake systems are present. Both Sec and Tat secretion systems have been identified. Complete multistep pathways for synthesizing all amino acids are predicted. A selenocysteine incorporation system, selABC, is present although only a single selenoprotein, the alpha subunit of format dehydrogenase, is predicted. A. hydrophila possesses a polyhydroxyalkanoic acid storage granule system for nitrogen limitation-induced storage and a glycogen system for carbohydrate storage and mobilization. Many chitin-degrading enzymes have been predicted in addition to the characterized extracellular chitinase Chi192 and chitobiase. (HAMAP: AERHH)
Strain ATCC 7966
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (06-SEP-2006) The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850, USA
(08-NOV-2006) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method NA
Isolation site Canned milk from the United States
Isolation country USA
Number of replicons 1
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Bacilli
Mobility Yes
Flagellar presence Yes
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Facultative
Optimal temperature 22.0
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat Multiple
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name Homo sapiens
Cell arrangement Chains, Pairs, Singles
Sporulation NA
Metabolism NA
Energy source Heterotroph
Diseases Gastroenteritis, septicemia, and others
Pathogenicity NA