Borrelia afzelii PKo

Names Borrelia afzelii PKo
Accession numbers NC_008273, NC_008274, NC_008277, NC_008564, NC_008565, NC_008566, NC_008567, NC_008568, NC_008569, NT_167350, NT_167351, NT_167352, CP002933
Background Borreliae, the causative agent of Lyme disease, are obligatorily bound to their host organisms for survival. During their life cycle they switch from the invertebrate host tick (Ixodes spec.) to various vertebrate hosts via a tick bite. It seems that Borellia have three indispensable components; a chromosome, a circular plasmid of approximately 26 kb (cp27 in B.afzelli) and a linear plasmid of approximately 54 kb (lp60-1 in B.afzelli), each species can also contain many other plasmids. The range of vertebrates and invertebrates used as hosts is thought to be mediated by factors encoded mainly on a large number of different plasmids found in Borreliae genomes. These plasmids are characterized by their wealth of paralogous genes. It is thought that Borreliae plasmids are not stable and are frequently rearranged leading to differing plasmid content within a species. The chromosome is also involved in fission/fusion events, and the right end of the chromosome of B. burgdorferi strains is variable due to its ability to catch plasmids. During passage plasmids can be lost due to the lack of selection pressure, which can be accompanied by the inability of Borreliae to prosper in the host. B.afzelii Pko was originally isolated from human skin, and the early passage (8th) is infectious in gerbils. This sequence is made up of early (8th) and late (70th) passage sequences; in the late passage the vls gene locus encoding for variable surface proteins is missing, which probably accounts for the fragmentary nature of plasmid lp31. The plasmids contribute at least 36% of the total genome; there are probably 9 circular and 7 linear plasmids, not all of which have been closed. (EBI Integr8)
Strain PKo
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (02-AUG-2006) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
(08-JUN-2006) Genome Analysis, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstr. 11, Jena 07745, Germany
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method NA
Isolation site Skin lesion from a Lyme disease patient in Europe in 1993
Isolation country NA
Number of replicons 13
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Spirilla
Mobility No
Flagellar presence NA
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Aerobic
Optimal temperature NA
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat HostAssociated
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name Homo sapiens
Cell arrangement Singles
Sporulation Nonsporulating
Metabolism NA
Energy source NA
Diseases Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans
Pathogenicity Yes