Helicobacter pylori HPAG1

Names Helicobacter pylori HPAG1
Accession numbers NC_008086, NC_008087
Background Helicobacter is a gram-negative, slow-growing organism. H. pylori has importance as a common human pathogen. Helicobacter pylori is composed of a single circular chromosome with 1,667,867 base pairs, containing about 1590 coding regions (TIGR, 2004).Helicobacter is a spiral shaped organism with flagella. It has a potent multisubunit urease enzyme that enables it to survive in acidic pH conditions and colonize the gastric environment (TIGR, 2004). H. pylori utilizes the enzyme urease to convert urea into bicarbonate and ammonia to combat the low acidity of the stomach. The mixing of the two extreme pH levels creates a neutralized protective cloud around the H. pylori, allowing it to survive in the stomach (Helicobacter Foundation, 2004).Helicobacter is able to live in the acidity of the stomach and duodenum, living on the mucus lining of the stomach, causing several health problems for the host (Helicobacter Foundation, 2004). Helicobacter can also be seen in animals such as cheetahs, dogs, cats, and ferrets (J. Solnick et al. 2004).Until the discovery of Helicobacter in 1982, ulcers were thought to be caused by stress. Now it is known that ulcers, in addition to gastritis, are caused by a bacterial infection of H. pylori. Though relatively easy to treat with antibiotics, H. pylori can be a risk factor for gastric cancer if it becomes a long-term infection (D. J. Kelly, 2004).The body's natural defenses cannot combat H. pylori because white and killer T cells cannot easily get through the stomach lining. The defense cells eventually die, spilling their superoxide radicals on stomach linig cells, on which H. pylori can feed (Helicobacter Foundation, 2004). (From http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Helicobacter) (MicrobeWiki: Helicobacter)
Strain HPAG1
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (06-DEC-2005) Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Center for Genome Sciences - Washington University School of Medicine,
(07-JUN-2006) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method NA
Isolation site Swedish patient with chronic atrophic gastritis
Isolation country NA
Number of replicons 2
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Spirilla
Mobility Yes
Flagellar presence Yes
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Aerobic
Optimal temperature 37.0
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat HostAssociated
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name Homo sapiens
Cell arrangement Singles
Sporulation Nonsporulating
Metabolism NA
Energy source NA
Diseases Gastric ulcer
Pathogenicity Yes