Sodalis glossinidius str. 'morsitans'

Names Sodalis glossinidius str. 'morsitans'
Accession numbers NC_007712, NC_007713, NC_007714, NC_007715
Background Sodalis glossinidius (strain morsitans) is a maternally transmitted endosymbiont of tsetse flies and resides primarily intra- and extracellularly in the host midgut and can also be found in hemolymph. Its genome consists of a single circular chromosome and three plasmids. It has a coding capacity of only 51% and contains 972 pseudogenes. Several lines of evidence indicate that Sodalis' association with its host is relatively recent: identical 16S rDNA sequences were obtained from Sodalis from different tsetse hosts, Sodalis can be successfully cultivated on insect cells and subsequently in cell-free medium, the Sodalis genome is much larger than genomes of insect obligate symbionts and finally Sodalis contains more than 1800 functional orthologs to E.coli, a feature indicating that it possesses a large functional repertoire. Sodalis glossinidius seems to have retained a large number of the capabilities of free-living bacteria such as functional pathways for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the TCA cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway. It encodes only three intact PEP-carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems and lacks glycolytic enzymes such as galactosidase and glucosidase. The pathways for the synthesis of all amino acids except alanine are present. Many of the genes required for amino acid degradation are missing. It has only five sigma factors and eight signal transduction systems. It seems to rely on the direct transport of heme/haemoglobin via a specific ABC transporter. The ferrous iron transporter FeoA is intact but FeoB is degraded and the global regulator Fur is missing. The chromosome encodes three putative Type-III secretion systems that are present in different clusters, the Sodalis symbiosis regions, referred to as SSR-1, SSR-2 and SSR-3. Despite an apparent lack of motility, ninety flagellar-related genes have been identified in two distinct clusters, the second of which contains 15 pseudogenes. (EBI Integr8)
Strain morsitans
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (14-DEC-2004) Masahira Hattori, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences
(18-JAN-2006) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-0829,
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method NA
Isolation site Isolated from secondary symbiont of Glossina morsitans morsitans
Isolation country NA
Number of replicons 4
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Bacilli
Mobility No
Flagellar presence Yes
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Microaerophilic
Optimal temperature 25.0
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat HostAssociated
Biotic relationship Symbiotic
Host name Glossina morsitans morsitans
Cell arrangement NA
Sporulation Nonsporulating
Metabolism NA
Energy source NA
Diseases None
Pathogenicity No