Borrelia burgdorferi B31

Names Borrelia burgdorferi B31
Accession numbers NC_000948, NC_000949, NC_000950, NC_000951, NC_000952, NC_000953, NC_000954, NC_000955, NC_000956, NC_000957, NC_001318, NC_001849, NC_001850, NC_001851, NC_001852, NC_001853, NC_001854, NC_001855, NC_001856, NC_001857, NC_001903, NC_001904
Background The study of borrelia has become increasingly important as more of its pathology is understood. As the causative agent of Lyme disease understanding its structure and function is now a major focus of modern medicine.All species of borrelia have linear chromosomes ranging in size from 900,000 to 920,000 base pairs, with an accompaniment of circular and linear plasmids (some species contain up to 20 different plasmids). Between the linear chromosome and array of plasmids there is a high degree of redundancy in the genetic sequence. Although it has not been determined yet, it seems likely that the origin of replication of the main chromosome in species of Borrelia is almost exactly centered on the linear chromosome.Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal agent of Lyme disease has a chromosome of 910,724 base pairs, with 20 linear and circular plasmids with a combined size of more than 533,000 base pairs. Both the linear chromosome and escort of plasmids of B. burgdorferi have been recently sequenced. The main chromosome of B. burgdorferi is estimated to contain 853 genes that encode a basic set of proteins.Species in the genus borrelia are highly specialized, spiral-shaped, two-membrane bacteria that have two flagella. They live primarily as an extracellular pathogen aided in adapting to various host animals by regulating the various lipoproteins on their surface. Borrelia is extremely difficult to culture in vitro, due to its specific nutritional requirements.The various species of Borrelia are known to humans in the form of Lyme disease and recurring fever, transmitted through tick or flea bite. The cycle of Borrelia through animals is related to the tick's life cycle. The tick has four stages in its two-year life cycle, egg, larva, nymph and adult. Between each stage the tick needs a blood meal in order to mature. The tick usually acquires the spirochaete during its larval stage, when it feeds on small animals such as rodents or birds. Usually the tick picks up Borrelia from the white-footed mouse, which is commonly infected. The tick then becomes the host for the spirochaete. The bacteria resides in the digestive tract of the host for its next nymph and adult stages during which it is passed on to other animals, and sometimes humans. (From (MicrobeWiki: Borrelia)
Strain B31
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (12-DEC-1997) The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Dr, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
(13-SEP-2001) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method NA
Isolation site Dilutional cloning from the original Lyme-disease tick isolate
Isolation country NA
Number of replicons 22
Gram staining properties Negative
Shape Spirilla
Mobility No
Flagellar presence Yes
Number of membranes 2
Oxygen requirements Microaerophilic
Optimal temperature NA
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat HostAssociated
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name Homo sapiens
Cell arrangement NA
Sporulation NA
Metabolism NA
Energy source NA
Diseases Lyme disease
Pathogenicity Yes