Mycoplasma hyorhinis HUB-1

Names Mycoplasma hyorhinis HUB-1
Accession numbers NC_014448
Background This genus currently comprises more than 120 obligate parasitic species found in a wide spectrum of hosts, including humans, animals, insects and plants. Infection proceeds through bacterial attachment to the host cell via specialized surface proteins, adhesins, and subsequent invasion, and results in prolonged intracellular persistence that may cause lethality. One mechanism by which many mycoplasmas evade the host's adaptive immune responses is through the phase-variable production of critical surface proteins. All mycoplasmas are phenotypically distinguished from other bacteria by their small size (0.3-0.8 um in diameter) and lack a cell wall. The latter is one of the major traits that puts them in the separate taxonomic group of microorganisms, class Mollicutes. The cell membrane is rich in protein components (up to two-thirds of the membrane mass) that to a great extent consist of highly structurally adaptive lipoproteins employed in invading the host immune system, attachment to the host cells and pathogenic invasion. Most mycoplasmas are non-motile, with the exception of a few flask-shaped human and animal pathogens (M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. gallisepticum, M. pulmonis and M. mobile). Cell division proceeds via normal binary fission or via elongation of a parent cell to multinucleate filaments and subsequent breakup into coccoid bodies. Mycoplasmas carry the smallest genomes of self-replicating cells (500-1000 coding regions), and thus were among the first microorganisms selected for the genome-sequencing projects. Examination of the mycoplasma genomic data indicates the biochemical pathways where gene reductions took place, and helps define the set of genes essential for a minimal self-replicating cell. During their evolution, mycoplasmas appear to have lost all the genes involved in amino acid and cofactor biosynthesis, synthesis of the cell wall and lipid metabolism, resulting in the requirement of the full spectrum of the substrates and factors taken up from the host or from the complex artificial culture medium. The majority of mycoplasmas are deficient in genes coding for components of intermediary and energy metabolism and thus depend mostly on glycolysis as an ATP-generating pathway. M.hyorhinis strain HUB-1 is a strain isolated from the respiratory tract of swine. Its variable lipoprotein (Vlp) locus has been found to encode 7 vlp genes, and its protein secretion system has also been identified (adapted from PMID 20802032). (HAMAP: MYCHH)
Strain HUB-1
Complete Yes
Sequencing centre (11-AUG-2010) Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong
(20-AUG-2010) National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Sequencing quality Level 6: Finished
Sequencing depth NA
Sequencing method NA
Isolation site melanoma cell line LB33 mel A1 culture
Isolation country NA
Number of replicons 1
Gram staining properties Positive
Shape NA
Mobility No
Flagellar presence No
Number of membranes 1
Oxygen requirements Facultative
Optimal temperature NA
Temperature range Mesophilic
Habitat HostAssociated
Biotic relationship Free living
Host name NA
Cell arrangement Singles
Sporulation Nonsporulating
Metabolism NA
Energy source NA
Diseases NA
Pathogenicity Probably